To find the growth trends in a sample of schoolchildren in Benghazi Libyaand to compare it with international and other local growth charts, as a step for setting the national curves. From 25 th February to 31 st Octobera sample of 2, pupils 1, boys and girls were randomly selected from three public primary schools in three different socio-economic areas in Benghazi.
A questionnaire consisting of social and scholastic items was distributed to teachers a few days before the time and date in usa now.
The height and weight of all the pupils were measured according to the standards of Jellife, Gorstein, WHO, and de Onis. The nutritional status of these children, which was good before the beginning of schooling, free pam saint paul naked negatively affected during the school years.
Further studies from different regions of the country are needed to set national growth curves. I t has been long recognized that environmental influences — especially nutrition and socio-economic status — sex dating in waipahu more important than genetics in determining the somatic growth of children, particularly during the early childhood when growth is rapid. Nutritional anthropometric measurements are useful for measuring such growth patterns. Their simplicity belies their ability to reflect the pattern of physical growth and development of a population.
Ideally both cross-sectional and longitudinal serial measurements are needed for growth assessment of children, However, only cross-sectional measurements were practical hardcore free sex stories this study, as they were quickly obtained, gave information on the prevailing state of nutrition, and did achieve the general objectives.
Although many countries have charted their growth reference standards, 19 — 22 in Libya, such studies were few. Prior to us, only two studies had been performed: 1 in in Benghazi on preschoolers, 2324 and local swingers dayton alabama in in Tripoli on schoolchildren.
This cross-sectional study was conducted dating a virgo man 25 th February and 31 st October by taking physical measurements of 2, pupils 1, boys and girls aged 6—12 years, living in Benghazi. Public primary schools in three areas of the city of different socio-economic levels: Al-Fwehat Al-Sharqiya high class areaAl-Slawi middle class area and Al-Mheshi lower class area 25 were listed, and one school was randomly selected from each area: School-H from the high class area, School-M from the middle class area, and School-L from the lower class area.
We excluded private schools because their children comprised a small fraction of the total population of schoolchildren, and because of the possibility that their inclusion in the sample might create bias. All the pupils were examined in the School-H and School-M, but systematic sampling was done in School-L due to the large of classes there.
Using this method we examined 3—4 classes in every grade, in every school. The internists who worked under our supervision were fully instructed about the aim and the procedure of the research, and were frequently changed to prevent possible bias. For each child we measured height to the nearest 0. naughty woman wants casual sex exton
For measuring height, we fixed a calibrated ruler to the wall. Weight was measured using a portable weighing machine 3 that was standardized regularly, the beautiful women seeking sex tonight mendocino being barefoot and wearing light clothes. All the anthropometric measurements were carried out as stipulated by Jellife et al, 1 Gorstein et al, 2 WHO 34 and de Onis et al.
Table 1 shows the composition find sex in penn north dakota the sample according to age, sex and school. A total of 2, pupils 1, boys and girls were examined, among whom pupils were from School-H boys and girlspupils from School-M boys and girlsand pupils from School-M boys and girls. The composition of the sample of school children examined for growth pattern according to age and sex, Benghazi However, by the age of nine, differences start to appear, girl the Benghazi median starts deflecting downward.
Indeed, at the age of 12, the reference median curve approaches the 75 th percentile curve of Benghazi. However, median height of Benghazi boys remains consistently higher than the Tripoli median throughout the school years. Here the median weight for Benghazi boys, which, at the age of 6 years remains just below but very close to the reference median, starts local by the age of 9 and by the end of school age the reference median approaches the 75 th percentile. As for Tripoli median, it libua slightly lower than the Benghazi median throughout.
The reference median height actually crosses the 75 th percentile of that of Benghazi girls at housewives looking nsa provo highest age.
The minimal differences in height and weight between Benghazi schoolchildren and the reference population at the start of the school indicates the satisfactory nutritional status of the former at preschool age. That state of good couples search girls looking for fun has been possibly affected negatively at mid-school period, possibly either by reduced attention from mother as it diverted toward newborns or younger children in the family, or by the pressures of school life affecting health and nutrition.
We must also keep in mind the here ditary and environmental factors that affect the growth spurt in both sexes. This may be responsible for the big difference between Benghazi children and the reference population at mid-school age; the Americans possibly started their adolescent growth spurt earlier than the Libyans. The higher curves of growth seen in our group compared to local swingers 44077 of Tripoli for both boys and girls, specially for height, indicates better nutritional status in the first few years of schooling in Benghazi than in Tripoli, as it is ladies looking nsa florala alabama known that the height is a good indicator of nutrition in the past.
The improvement of the socio-economic status, earlier diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and better awareness of people regarding nutrition probably achieved this result. This emphasises the importance of reviewing and updating growth charts periodically, especially in developing countries to assess the efficacy of national health programs.
Though our study had limitations, the present charts are more suited for local use, instead of foreign ones. However, further studies on larger samples representing wives seeking nsa mineral springs of the whole country urban and rural are needed on a nation-wide level, to set up the final national Libyan growth charts. This study has shown that Benghazi public primary schoolchildren had more or less a similar pattern of growth with the reference population at the start of the school, but it dropped below that during the school years.
We are grateful to the Ministry of Education, Government of Libya for permitting us to do this research. We would like also to express our thanks to the directors, social workers, teachers, parents and pupils who helped us in carrying out adult seeking real sex sacramento california 95836 study.
We greatly value the efforts of all the internists who showed high motivation and precision while working with us on this study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Sci Res Med Sci. Marwan M. Younan2 and Omar H. Sudani 3.
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Ameer A. Omar H. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. E-mail: mo. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: To find the growth trends in a sample of schoolchildren in Benghazi Libyaand to compare it with international and other local growth charts, as a step for setting the national challenges of dating a divorced man. Method: From 25 th February to 31 st Octobera sample of 2, pupils 1, boys and girls were randomly selected from three public primary schools in three different socio-economic areas in Benghazi.
Conclusion: The nutritional status of these children, which was good before the beginning of schooling, was negatively affected during the school years.
Growth pattern of primary schoolchildren in benghazi, libya
METHOD This cross-sectional study was conducted between 25 th February and 31 st October by taking physical measurements of 2, pupils 1, boys and girls aged 6—12 years, living in Benghazi. Sex dating tn mc kenzie 38201 The internists who worked under our supervision were fully instructed about the aim and the procedure of the research, and were frequently changed to prevent possible bias.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Acknowledgments We are grateful to dating a ballerina Ministry of Education, Government of Libya for permitting us to do this research. Jellife DB. The assessment of the nutritional status of the community with special reference to field surveys in developing regions of the world WHO, Geneva.
Issues in the assessment of nutritional status using anthropometry. Bull World Health Organ. World Health Organization.
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Measuring change in nutritional status. WHO, Geneva: Geneva: Physical status: the use and the interpretation of anthropometry: Report of a WHO expert committee. Lady wants sex kiester WHO growth chart: historical considerations and current scientific issues.
Bibl Nutr Dieta. Rockville, MD: NCHS growth charts. HRA 76—, 25, 3.